This nation is known by Istanbul as its biggest and largest city and Ankara as a Capital. The estimation of the Turkish citizens is between 75 to 80 per cent of the Turkish population while as the Kurds take part of the Turkish inhabitants and they vary between 15 to 20 per cent.
Throughout the classic area Turkey was known by the Byzantine Empire. It was dominated by Greeks, Assyrians, Persians and Armenians. By the time, Alexander the Great has used his authorities to launch his Father_s Hellenization project and it continued to reach the _ERA OF THE WORLD_ that is also known as Byzantine calendar. This action lead to the stretching of the Seljuk from Iran to Anatolia on the 11th century after their victory at the battle of Manzikert that took place between them and the Byzantine Empire on August 1071. Anatolia (Turkey) was governed by the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum until the Mongol invasions at the battle of Kose Dag where the Seljuk surrounded in 1943. Even though the Seljuk rebelled several times, the Mongols turned the country into principalities or petty kingdoms known as Turkmen Beyliks ruled by Beys. These Turkish principalities were reassembled by the Ottomans under the leadership of Mehmed II commonly known as Mehmed the Conqueror who conquered Constantinople at the age of 21 and ended the Byzantine Empire. Then came Selim I who continued the expansion during his time in 1516. After his death in 1520, Souleiman the Magnificent took over and assumed the throne and he had no time to waste as he began military campaigns to expand the empire from Europe to India. During his 46 years of rule he managed to extend in Central Europe and he dominated the seas from the Mediterranean to the Red sea. During this period Selim II followed the path and added Cyprus and Tunisia but they have been defeated in Bukharest battle with Selim III which caused a huge loss and the creation of the Janissaries that formed the first modern standing army in Europe and as a personal army loyal only to the Sultan. This situation had Mahmud II to stand up and enter the European modernization in the 19th century as they opened up to the European clothes, schools and military.. After his death his son followed his leadership but he failed as Algeria was no longer a part of the Ottoman Empire as it has been colonized by France in 1830. The country was governed afterwards by the Committee of Union and Progress.
Within the World War I the Ottoman Empire won the battle against the Allies. By the end of the war the Ottoman Empire has been defeated and the Turkish country appears under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk and he was named the first President of Turkey in 1923.
The history of the word ‘TURKEY’:
The name of Turkey originally from the Medieval Latin that was used by Byzantine Empire and was adopted in 1923 when Turkey actually became the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti).
The history of Turkey:
The Anatolian Byland that gathers most of the Modern Turkey is considered as one of the oldest inhabitant lands in the history from the Neolithic to the Hellenistic period. The main language was the Anatolian and the Eastern Thrace was the European part of Turkey.
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